Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR)

Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis(commonly called IBR or red nose) is an acute, contagious virus disease of cattle that is caused by Bovine Herpesvirus-1(BHV-1).  Often implicated as an infection which initiates the shipping fever complex.  This infection usually occurs in the air passages of the head and the wind pipe.  However, in females this virus also causes inflammation of the vulva and vagina and abortion. Abortion occurs about 20 to 45 days after infection.

A complication associated with BHV1 infection is the ability of the virus to establish latency.  The latent virus persists during the life of the animal and may be reactivated under certain stress conditions.  Clinical disease can be controlled by vaccination but latent infection cannot be prevented by vaccination.

Although clinical findings may be highly suggestive of IBR, no real pathopneumonic signs are restricted to only IBR.  Therefore laboratory confirmation is necessary to definitely identify BHV-1 infection.  Confirmation of exposure to BHV-1 via natural infection is determined by a measurement of antibody in serum or milk.  Two samples should be taken 3 weeks apart.  A four fold increase in BHV-1 specific serum antibody titre indicates an active BHV-1 infection.  The ELISA for the detection of antibodies against BHV-1 in cattle has been shown to correlate with the virus neutralization test, although more sensitive.

Test Method: Indirect ELISA  for the detection of BHV-1 antibodies. 

Sample Requirement: serum or milk

Lab testing time: 3-4 hours (run weekly)

Sensitivity: 100%


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